Stuttering consists of involuntary disruptions to the rhythmic flow of speech, the speaker’s cognitive and emotional reactions to them, and the speaker’s perceptions of listener reactions.
In persistent stuttering, the speaker develops a sense of self-who-stutters resulting from attributing meaning to personal experiences through self-narrative. The construction of self-who-stutters is influenced by the speaker’s relationships with others. Current research indicates a neurodevelopmental basis for stuttering, with epigenetic influences. The narratives of people who stutter are key environmental factors contributing to the epigenetic process.
— O'Dwyer (2016)
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